Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with different clinical-biological and evolutionary aspects. Most often it is a disease with indolent evolution. Chemotherapy has long been a therapy of last resort in the treatment of prostate cancer. Deploying chemotherapy in this context certainly implied the failure of all possibilities of hormonal manipulation. Thus, antineoplastic chemotherapy was first proposed in metastatic situations, with resistance to castration. Many molecules have confirmed the effectiveness of chemotherapy in this indication. Several phase III trials have placed chemotherapy as a serious option in less advanced situations, with very encouraging results in terms of survival and quality of life. Chemotherapy is currently considered as a therapeutic weapon that should be included in the management strategy, after discussion in a multidisciplinary consultation meeting. Through this review, we will try to establish the state of the art of the use of antineoplastic chemotherapy in prostatic adenocarcinoma in 2018, in metastatic (de novo or in a phase of resistance to castration), localized, or locally advanced situations.
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