Cardiac Manifestations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients: An Electro- and Echocardiographic Study


Human immunodeficiency virus
Left ventricular dysfunction
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome


How to Cite

Babaliche P, Menon A. Cardiac Manifestations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients: An Electro- and Echocardiographic Study. Integr J Med Sci [Internet]. 2019 Oct. 6 [cited 2022 Oct. 5];6. Available from:


Background : Advanced novel therapies and antiretroviral medications for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have led to the improved management and survival of the infected patients. However, I [i]t manifestations in late-stage diseases such as cardiac deformities, which are the major cause of fatality in HIV-infected patients. Hence the current study was undertaken to derive the association of cardiac dysfunctions in HIV-infected patients using electrocardiograph (ECG)and echocardiography (ECHO).
Methodology : The study included a total of 100 consecutive patients with HIV infection and was performed during January–December 2016 in the Department of General Medicine. Prior to the commencement of the study, ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Committee. Patients underwent complete blood count, ECG, and ECHO. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and R-3.4.1 software.
Results : Majority of the patients were males (79) and 40–49 years was the most common age group. The duration of HIV infection in most of the patients (73) was 1–10 years. Among the study population, 79 patients received antiretroviral drugs. Chi-square test was used to find the association of clinical symptoms and cardiac abnormalities with CD4 count. Cardiac manifestations were observed in 62% patients; sinus tachycardia (29%) was found to be the most common cardiac manifestation on ECG. Diastolic and systolic dysfunctions were observed in 35 patients and 49 patients, respectively.
Conclusion : Patients with HIV infection are at a higher risk of developing cardiac dysfunctions. Early identification through ECG and ECHO-revealed abnormalities might assist in cardiac-targeted interventions, which can significantly reduce the fatal outcomes in HIV-infected patients.


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