COVID-19 Lockdown and its Impact on Mental Health in Various Population Groups in Greece: A Cross-Sectional Study




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Argyropoulos K, Krikonis K, Jelastopulu E. COVID-19 Lockdown and its Impact on Mental Health in Various Population Groups in Greece: A Cross-Sectional Study. Integr J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Mar. 8 [cited 2022 May 16];8. Available from:


Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown has brought a serious impact on physical and mental health. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to estimate the impact of the first lockdown in Greece, on both quality of life and anxiety levels in different occupational groups. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted from the 20th of April to the 4th of May 2020. A 24-item anonymous questionnaire was administered to collect basic demographic and socioeconomic data. The 5-item WHO Well-Being Index (WHO-5, 0-100%, cut-off 52%) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment (GAD-7) tools were used to assess well-being and anxiety, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS for Windows v.24.0 Statistical Package. Results: A total of 575 participated in the study, 62.8% females, 48.5% aged between 40 to 59 years. 32.5% were employed in the education sector, 32.5% in the health sector, and 20.3% as season workers in the tourism sector. Males showed slightly higher levels of well-being (52.1 vs. 47.3, p=0.023) and lower levels of anxiety (7.1 vs. 8.2, p=0.023) compared to females. Factors associated with higher well-being and lower anxiety were higher education and income level, optimism, taking fewer protection measures, and being a seasonal worker. Furthermore, participants with comorbidities and symptoms like headache, musculoskeletal pain, as well as feeling depressed or stressed revealed lower well-being and higher anxiety scores. Conclusion: Our study revealed overall poor well-being and mild to moderate levels of anxiety during the lockdown. Actions should be taken to address and prevent its serious impact on mental health.


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