Staphylococcus aureus is considered one of the most frequently isolated bacteria in the community and in the hospital environment, being associated with several infections. Healthcare professionals represent a group vulnerable to Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA colonization, therefore being potential disseminators of these microorganisms during their care activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of S. aureus and MRSA nasal colonization among nursing students over the four years of university attendance, including pre-clinical exposure and at different moments during clinical rotations. Samples were collected from students from the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th year. The study identified 55.9% MSSA positive samples and 31.4% MRSA positive samples from the total studied population. Simultaneous carriage of MRSA and MSSA was observed in students from all years of the nursing degree, but a highest MSSA colonization (61.5%) was linked to a lower MRSA colonization (30.8%). MRSA colonization seems to be dependent on the type of clinical internship, since the group attending internship in emergency rooms and surgery wards presented a significant increase in the amount of MRSA samples. Nursing students should be educated on the risks involved in carrying S. aureus and MRSA and informed about infection control measures.
David MZ, Daum RS.Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Epidemiology and clinical consequences of an emerging epidemic. Clin Microbiol Rev.2010;23(3):616-87. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00081-09
ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe 2014. Annual Report of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net). Annual Report of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net).ECDC, Stockholm. 2015. https://doi.org/10.2900/93403
Lee AS, De Lencastre H, Garau J, Kluytmans J, Malhotra-Kumar S, Pesche lA, Harbarth S. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Nat Rev Dis Prim. 2018;4:18033. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrdp.2018.33
Okamo B, Moremi N, Seni J, Mirambo MM, Kidenya BR,Mshana SE. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among pre-clinical and clinical medical students in a Tanzanian University. BMC Res Notes.2016;9:47. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-016-1858-0
Ottomeyer M, Graham CD, Legg AD, Cooper ES, Law CD, Molani M, et al. Prevalence of nasal colonization by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in persons using a homeless shelter in Kansas City. Front Public Health.2016;4:234. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2016.00234
ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe 2019. Annual Report of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net). 2019. [Accessed 2021 Jan 15]. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/surveillance-antimicrobial-resistance-Europe-2019.pdf
Albrich WC,Harbarth S. Health-care workers: source, vector, or victim of MRSA? Lancet Infect Dis. 2008;8(5):289-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(08)70097-5
Orlin I, Rokney A, Onn A, Glikman D, Peretz A. Hospital clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are carried by medical students even before healthcare exposure. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2017 Jan 23;6:15.https://doi.org/10.1186/s13756-017-0175-2
Mukovnikova M,Yusuf E, Cossey V, Schuermans A, Saegeman V. Evaluation of a chromogenic biplate medium (ChromID MRSA/ChromID S. aureus) for the simultaneous detection of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in preoperative screening samples from the anterior nares. J Clin Microbiol.2014;52(2):678-80. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03311-13
Wassenberg MW, Kluytmans JA, Box AT, Bosboom RW, Buiting AG, van Elzakker EP, et al. Rapid screening of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using PCR and chromogenic agar: A prospective study to evaluate costs and effects. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16(12):1754-61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03210.x
Beck WD, Berger-Bächi B, Kayser FH. Additional DNA in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and molecular cloning of mec-specific DNA. J Bacteriol.1986;165(2):373-8. https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.165.2.373-378.1986
Koukos G, Papadopoulos C, Tsalikis L, Sakellari D, Arsenakis M, Konstantinidis A. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in subjects with successful and failing dental implants.A pilot study. Open Dent J.2015;8:257-63. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874210601408010257
Espadinha D, Faria NA, Miragaia M, Lito LM, Melo-Cristino J.,Lencastre H.Extensive dissemination of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) between the hospital and the community in a country with a high prevalence of nosocomial MRSA. PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e59960. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059960
Conceição T, Lencastre H, Aires-de-Sousa M. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among Portuguese nursing students: A longitudinal cohort study over four years of education. PLoS One. 2017;12(11):e0188855. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0188855
Mongkolrattanothai K, Gray BM, Mankin P, Stanfill AB, Pearl RH, Wallace LJ, Vegunta RK. Simultaneous carriage of multiple genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus in children. J Med Microbiol.2018;60(Pt 3):317-22. https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.025841-0
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2021 Coelho M et al.