Lung cancer carcinogenesis is increasingly related to genetic disorders that lead to the use of specific targeted therapies which improve clinical outcome and survival. Gene fusion is one of the mechanisms of lung cancer pathogenesis besides gene mutation. The oncogenic echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene was the first described in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and it’s the most frequent ALK rearrangement which occurs in approximately 5% of NSCLC. The development of sequencing technology has allowed the discovery of other ALK partners that cause an ALK fusion in NSCLC. They are still less known, however. The aim of this review is to report the novel ALK fusions in NSCLC described in the literature and their particular characteristics. We will present the kinesin family member 5B (KIF5B) - ALK fusion, the huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP 1)- ALK fusion, and other uncommon ALK fusions.
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